Understanding The Composition of Printed Circuit Boards

A printed circuit board or PCB is a very important part of electronic equipment such as computers. This is often called printed wiring cards or printed wiring boards. It is basically a small piece of layered boards with pad and lines that link different points and components together. Components such as connectors and resistors are mounted on the surface of the PCB with a metal solder. Signals and power pass through the connections, which allow the entire circuit to function.

Basically, a printed circuit board is composed of several alternating layers of various materials. These materials are joined together through a lamination process, using adhesives and heat. The layers include the following:


The FR4 is the substrate of base material of the board. This is the middle layer. Fiberglass is the most common material used for this layer, which is designated as FR4. This solid core provides the PCB thickness and rigidity. Flexibility, as seen in some boards, is achieved by using high temperature plastics that are very flexible such as Kapton.

The thickness of this layer varies, from very thin ones to thicker boards. Most PCBs are at 1.6 millimeter or o.o63 inches thick. To know more about it visit www.pcbnet.com.

FR4 or fiberglass can be very expensive. Some manufacturers opt to use cheaper substrate materials such as phenolics and epoxies. These are inexpensive but are much less durable compared to FR4. Also, these inexpensive materials emit a distinctive unpleasant smell when soldered. Phenolics have the tendency to smoke, char and delaminate when exposed to the soldering iron for too long. This is because the thermal decomposition temperature of phenolics is low. PCBs with phenolics and epoxies for substrates are often used in the manufacture of low-end types of consumer electronics.


pcbAfter the substrate is a layer of thin copper foil. This material is laminated into the substrate using adhesive and heat. A double-sided printed circuit board has copper foils attached to both sides of the base material. This type of board is often referred to as 2-layer board or double-sided PCBs. Cheaper boards, often seen in low-cost electronics, only have 1 side that contain a copper layer. More expensive ones can have as many as 16 copper layers.

The thickness of the copper layer varies, which is determined by weight as oz/ft2 (ounces per square feet). This would be equivalent to 35 μm (micrometers) or about 1.4 thousandths of an inch (1.4/1000 inches) of copper. Most boards have copper layers of 1 ounce per square foot. Some boards have as thick as 2-3 ounces of copper per square foot. These boards can handle very high power and are often used in high-end electronics.

Solder mask

The layer of solder mask is next. This layer gives the board’s distinctive color. For most boards, the solder mask layer gives its green shade. This is placed on top of the copper layer in order to insulate copper traces that may accidentally come in contact with the solder, conductive bits or with other metals. The solder mask is spread over most of the board to cover all the small traces but leaves the SMD pads and silver rings exposed where components are soldered to. The solder mask layer also allows users to properly attach and solder components to the board and prevent solder jumpers.

Green is the most common solder mask layer color but other colors are also available such as white, purple and red.

Silk Screen

This is the white layer applied over the solder mask layer. The silkscreen layer adds the numbers, symbols and letters to the surface of the printed circuit board. These allow easier assembly and enables users to understand the board better. The function of each LED or pin can be indicated through the silkscreen labels.

The common color for this layer is white. Other colors are available as well, such as yellow, black, red, and gray. However, on most boards, only one color is used for this layer.

The Rescue™ Club: Introduced by TaylorMade, Improved by TaylorMade

2002 marked the first time that a new kind of club was introduced since Taylormade golf came up with the idea of a metalwood: the hybrid club. Initially thought of as a game improvement club, the Rescue™ club (TaylorMade’s official name for its line of hybrids) has become a sensation with Tour professionals thanks to its combination of features from a fairway wood and an iron. Today, hybrids are as popular among handicapped golfers for their game improving capability as they are with professionals for their ability to “come to the rescue”, essentially being played in the gray area between fairway woods and irons.

To date, Taylormade golf has produced ten names under their Rescue™ club line, including the three they still market today. This article delves into each one of them.

RocketBallz Stage 2: The Kick-starter

RocketBallz Stage 2is the one that started it all for TaylorMade. It combines everything they know from their fairway woods and irons. Here’s a list of features unique to the RBZ Stage 2:

Taylormade golf•TaylorMade Rocket Steel. This high-strength steel creates a thinner face for the head that flexes a lot faster than normal steel.

•The Speed Pocket design was improved so that the face flexes even faster to promote more ball speed and distance.

•A lower and more forward location for the club head’s center of gravity helps increase speed of the ball and launch height as well as decrease spin.

•A black club-face combined with a non-glare white crown and new graphics promote easy alignment for more accurate shots.

•An 80-gram graphite shaft means more feel and control for every shot.

•An RBZ Lite Grip weighing 45g means faster swings, giving the golfer more distance.

The RBZ Stage 2 is essentially what kick-started the distinction that Taylormade golf has as far as dominance in the hybrid department. Every single improvement people have seen in the JetSpeed and SLDR line of Rescue™ clubs comes directly from what TaylorMade has learned from the RBZ Stage 2. From the Speed Pocket, which was only seen in irons, to lowering and moving the CG forward, and even the adjustable loft seen in SLDR, it really revolutionized the way people see their Rescue™ clubs.

SLDR: The Rescue™ Club Pros Prefer

SLDR incorporates what Taylormade golf has since learned from their SLDR line of drivers as well as what they’ve seen in the RBZ Stage 2.

•The Speed Pocket used in the RBZ Stage 2 is retained and further improved, allowing for a CG that’s even further forward for increased ball speed

•The compact head and shallow face of the SLDR allows easier launches and better play-ability from every lie

•Loft changes of ±1.5° that are desired by professionals from the SLDR drivers are made possible with the loft-sleeve technology used by Taylormade

•They’ve also kept the charcoal-gray crown and titanium-gray design for a high-contrast face that allows easy alignment

All these features make the SLDR Rescue™ one of the best hybrids you’ll see on Tour.

The JetSpeed fairway woods and Rescue™ clubs have a redesigned Speed Pocket that’s smaller than those seen in their irons. This means a lighter Rescue™ club while still retaining all the speed-boosting benefits offered by the Speed Pocket. Doing this allows Taylormade golf to redistribute the weight in the JetSpeed to have its centre of gravity (CG) low and forward, a proven TaylorMade location that promotes fast ball speed and low spin. This gives it a much better distance compared to their RocketBallz (RBZ) Stage 2. The redesigned pocket has also allowed their engineers to make the face shallower while maintaining the high club speed from RBZ Stage 2. With these two features, it makes JetSpeed Rescue™ clubs the most playable TaylorMade has ever created, better than the RBZ Stage 2.

Hybrids are really popular for golfers everywhere. Whether you are a handicapped player looking to improve your game or a skilled player looking to have a set of clubs that can literally come to your rescue, TaylorMade’s Rescue™ club line will definitely complete your set.

Find your desired custom lanyards

Lanyards are one good key to giving a distinct identity to your USB flash drives, icards, mp3 players and ipods. It is hard to imagine the time when you have lost your valuable items in the past just because either they were not hooked onto a good thread or did not have a thread to hold back. With custom lanyards, you can officially put a final end to all your losing woes. In the paragraphs below, we are going to give you more information on this product and tell you why you may want to get one.

Shop Around and Save Money

custom lanyardsThere are various companies out there that are offering custom lanyards at a discount price. Before you purchase the product from the first company you come across, you should first take some time to do research – it goes without saying that shopping around always pays off. The lanyards are available in a variety of different colors, as well textures, so you will be able to choose based on your taste.

Custom Lanyards Are Strong and Can Hold Most Electronic Products and Cards

These custom lanyards are really strong enough to hold any electronic product or I cards. They don’t just focus on colors or designs in lanyards. Most lanyards, depending on the company, are all about quality as well. At the end of the day, all most are looking for is a long term relationship with our customers.

The Material That is Used

The material that is normally used in the thread is a good quality of polyester, satin and nylon which is really strong and can bear a considerable amount of weight. Most companies give a good preference to the strength. Custom lanyards do not leave behind any rashes or any other skin problem because you are wearing it for a long time. Also, companies like to give their customer something which is more comfortable to wear so that the day you are wearing round necks, you still feel comfortable to wear the lanyards.

Full Team of Designers

Custom companies have a full team of designers that are full of empathy and imagination. The moment you tell them your industry, they are able to tell what kind of custom lanyards you would be looking for. Therefore, you do not have to go on explaining your need in far too much of a detail, saving your time. Also, the best part is that owing to their expertise in the field, they will be able to recommend you whether you should go for embroidered custom lanyards, printed lanyard or a stitched lanyard.

There Are Many Benefits to Ordering Lanyards

If you order the lanyards, you will receive various other benefits. Normally, custom lanyards are priced at a very economical price. Therefore, they will never hurt your pocket, which is good news if you plan on ordering this product.

Different techniques, processes and colors can be used in order to customize your lanyard, so your requirements in this product can easily be fulfilled. Regardless of who you are, where you are from or where you work, you can always use a lanyard – they are perfect for holding keys, ID cards, iPhones and many other things – so what are you waiting for? Go ahead and order your lanyard today!

Author Bio:
lanyard Wholesale Lanyards offers an amazing range of top-quality custom lanyards in a variety of materials, printing styles and prices. We have the finest customer service staff in the industry and our prices, service and quality are unbeatable.

How Military Members Acquire Challenge Coins

Every member of the military always tries to go the extra mile, above and beyond the call of duty. They are determined to carry out the best performance that they could ever do in every circumstance that requires their service. This quality of military members is a vital aspect that contributes greatly to the achievement of their goals and missions. This also allows them to deliver exceptional acts of service not only to their specific unit but also to the entire country.

To give back somehow to the effort, hard work and commitment shown by military members, their units as well as the national government have to acknowledge all the good things that soldiers do. In this sense, one of the greatest and most meaningful ways of commending the exceptional acts done by soldiers is by awarding challenge coins to them.

military challenge coinsThese coins are also known for other different names such as unit coins, military coins, memorial coins, commander coins and collector coins. However, it does not matter how you want to refer to these items. One thing is for certain, they present an enormous level of significance to all members of the military. These coins denote self-respect, agreement, comradeship and honor.

The commanding officer of military units is usually the person accountable for presenting these military challenge coins to deserving soldiers. Other members of the military who hold high positions in the organization can also do the awarding of these coins to outstanding military members. Regardless of the officer who presents this form of recognition, it would be highly valuable as they honor the outstanding performance given by committed soldiers.

Military members who are dedicated to delivering selfless service to the country definitely deserve to be commended with these military coins. They fight for the liberty of the country with all their might in spite of the fact that they could lose their lives in the dangerous missions and operations. For this reason, the government and its citizens should find a way to express somehow their appreciation for all the selfless acts done by members of the military.

Presenting military challenge coins to deserving members of the military is one of the most meaningful ways on how the whole country can show their appreciation for the indisputable service offered by these selfless people. While a firm handshake or a verbal expression or gratitude would do, it would be a better idea to award these military coins, as they are tangible. This means that these items can last for a long time in the hands of the recipient. This also means that the memories of the services given by these outstanding members of the military will remain even they have already completed their service.

Recipients of these military coins consider these items as their heart and soul. These coins are highly essential to the lives of members of the military as they signify their honor and pride. While some people think that the significance of these items can only last as long as the recipient lives, those people are wrong. The real value of military challenge coins remain longer than the lives of the soldiers who acquired them. These military coins can also be given to the family of soldiers who have fallen.

Military members who have lost their lives in wars can carry their honor and pride down to their grave. These coins would serve as a constant reminder of the selflessness and the ultimate sacrifice given by fallen comrades. On the other hand, soldiers who are able to complete their missions come back to their homes with priceless possessions. These prized possessions include dog tags, wedding rings, challenge coins and learning experiences.


People tend to picture athletes as physically enticing and envy-inducing individuals. Six-pack abs, curvy biceps, and hulking overall physique – they’ve got it all. Of course, that’s just the shape they’re supposed to end up with, what with all the warm-ups, trainings, and exercises they’ve been occupied with most of the time. After all, they need to get fit for their next fight, or they’ll get owned by their opponents.

sarm steroidThis fitness status however, apparently isn’t limited to athletes. There are gym-obsessed bodybuilders who probably are just concerned with their health or feel that muscles can improve their physical appearance. And there is also your regular Joe who at some point probably decided to build up some abs just for kicks. Perhaps many of the individuals belonging to this particular kind of well-chiseled population have worked their way tooth and nail to reach their current build, but there’s no doubt some of them have resorted to having particular substances aid that endeavor.

Steroids, although generally banned since more than three decades ago, are still circulating in the market; stealthily, so as to avoid being busted by the authorities, as the consequences could be fines and/or imprisonment. Steroids have been outlawed by the government due to reasons that range from the user experiencing pain to the user succumbing to complications.

The explanation is that this drug can damage the liver significantly that the user may end up having jaundice, high blood pressure, and liver tumor. As further effect, some of the other organs would stop functioning properly, hence the possibility of complications and eventually, death.

On the brighter side, the less serious side effects of taking steroids would simply mess up with the person’s endocrine system because after all, steroids are all about screwing around with hormones. That means guys will most likely develop qualities that are common for girls, and vice versa.

Now, steroids are legal only when prescribed by a physician for medical purposes. That refers to prescriptions for muscle wasting diseases like osteoporosis and cancer, and for hormone replacement therapy.

However, who could ever resist the substance? Steroids actually increase muscles, improve bone density, and burn unnecessary fats. Additionally, it improves a person’s physical skills, like agility, speed, strength, and endurance. Steroids are this short in becoming the perfect substance. They’re a shortcut to being fit, a backdoor to hulking up. If only the side effects weren’t as bad as those mentioned above.


In an attempt to answer to all the issues involved with the use of steroids, researchers have recently come up with SARM.

SARMS is an acronym for Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators. Technically, what they do is that they mimic the effects of a steroid, but they leave the bad side of the steroid from their function. Being able to stimulate a receptor in a manner that is tissue selective, the beneficial effects could then possibly be improved and at the same time, minimize (if not completely eradicate) unwanted effects.

SARMS, in conclusion, are very beneficial to both prescription and non-prescription users. And because it is relatively safe, the market regulation for this substance isn’t comparatively tight. People can buy SARMS in medical boutiques, which offer a wide range of other chemicals and substances that are available both for research and consumption. Because of these stores, people now have the choice to buy SARMS – a completely safer decision than steroids.

Therefore, if you are an athlete trying impossibly hard to gain weight or if you’re a bodybuilder who just couldn’t get enough of it, you can just go and buy SARMS. Or if you’re just a bored little guy who’s been too tired with having a slanky physique or you’re taking steroids and you feel the side effects kicking in, you can try and buy SARMS. SARMS might just be the perfect product you’ve been searching for.